Table 1

 Indirect discrimination

Primary focus of discriminationMechanisms via which children are disadvantaged
Girls/womenLow pay; single mother households trapped in poverty
Poor maternity provision: working mothers returning to work when babies are very young
Reduced educational opportunities/expectations (in some communities)
ParentsNo or little paternity leave35
No parental leave for child illness (in the UK)
Little acknowledgment of dual role of working parents in occupational law36
Inadequate or poorly organised childcare services for very young children
Inadequate provision for prams in public transport—difficulty in accessing appointments
Victims of domestic violence/homeless familiesStigmatised; poor access to services; low uptake of surveillance and immunisation37,38
DisabledAccess difficulties; marginalised in policy
Mentally ill carersStigmatised; unsupported—children acting as carers39