Table 2

 Clinical presentation, diagnostic methods at enrolment, therapeutic approaches, and clinical outcomes among the study children by influenza diagnosis

Influenza diagnosis
Positive(n = 352)Negative(n = 3419)
*p<0.0001 and †p = 0.027 v influenza negative children; no other statistically significant differences.
Clinical presentation
    Axillary temperature ⩾38°C (%)315 (89.4)*2393 (70.0)
    Common cold (%)51 (14.4)463 (13.5)
    Pharyngitis (%)168 (47.7)1537 (44.9)
    Acute otitis media (%)37 (10.5)†514 (15.0)
    Croup (%)52 (14.7)*273 (8.0)
    Acute bronchitis (%)22 (6.2)307 (8.9)
    Wheezing (%)11 (3.1)189 (5.5)
    Pneumonia (%)11 (3.1)136 (4.0)
Diagnostic methods
    Routine blood examinations (%)30 (8.5)307 (8.9)
    Microbiological tests (%)15 (4.2)170 (4.9)
    Chest radiography (%)15 (4.2)211 (6.2)
Therapeutic approaches
    Antipyretic prescriptions (%)269 (76.4)*2051 (59.9)
    Antipyretic use, mean (SD) days3.23 (1.44)*2.81 (1.45)
    Antibiotic prescriptions (%)193 (54.8)1948 (56.9)
    Antibiotic use, mean (SD) days7.72 (2.47)7.71 (2.45)
Clinical outcome
    Hospitalisation (%)19 (3.9)173 (5.1)
    Duration of hospitalisation, mean4.08 (1.61)4.67 (2.16)
    (SD) days
    Duration of fever, mean (SD) days3.03 (1.85)*2.12 (1.78)
    Additional medical visits, mean0.68 (1.23)0.66 (1.01)
    (SD) number
    School absence, mean (SD) days5.10 (2.55)*4.25 (2.93)