Table 2

Quality of included trials of interventions for children with vesicoureteric reflux

StudyMethod of treatment allocationBlinding of outcomes assessmentUTI outcome measurement (frequency, definitions, method of urine collection)Loss to follow up (%)Intention to treatNotes
Holland (1982)20Not statedRadiological outcomes onlyFrequency: daily dipstick test for nitrites, monthly culture2 years: 0%Not stated10 non-randomised patients run in parallel
Definition: not stated Method of collection: clean catch
BRS (1987)21–23Sealed envelopeRadiological outcomes onlyFrequency: 3 monthly2 years: 14%Not stated
Definition: 105/ml
Method of collection: not stated
Morris (1991)19Not statedNot statedFrequency: monthly urine culture2 years: 10%Not statedPublished in conference proceedings only
Definition: not stated5 years: 42%DMSA scans performed but data not presented
Method of collection: not stated
IRS Europe (1992)1524–32Sealed envelopeNot statedFrequency: “regular” home dipstick or health centre culture5 years: 11%Not stated7% incidence of postoperative obstruction
Definition: 105/ml
Method of collection: mid stream
Febrile UTI: fever >38.5°C, abdominal or flank pain, fatigue
IRS US (1992)33–35Sealed envelopeNot statedFrequency of testing not stated5 years: 9%No (15 who changed treatment status excluded)24 patients from antibiotic transferred to combined group by end of follow up due to repeat UTI
Definition: 105/ml, method of collection: mid stream
Febrile UTI: fever >38.5°C, abdominal or flank pain, fatigue
Reddy (1997)18Not statedNot statedFrequency of testing: daily urine nitrate test except in continuous antibiotic group1 year: 0%Not statedOnly continuous antibiotic and no treatment groups included in analysis.
Definition: not stated
Method of collection: not stated
Smellie (2001)36Sealed envelopeNot statedFrequency of testing: not stated4 years: 6%No (1 withdrawn)3 patients from antibiotic group had reimplantations
Definition: culture positive10 years: 9%
Method of collection: not stated
Capozza (2002)5SAS software, blinded. 2:1 randomisati onNot statedFrequency of testing: clinic visits1 year: 2%No (1 excluded—no procedure performed)8 patients with persistent reflux after implantation at 6 months withdrawn. Data on renal scarring for kidneys not patients
Definition: not stated
Method of collection: not stated