Table 1

 Definition of the major diagnostic syndrome categories

Disease syndromeDefinition
MalariaFever (>37.5°C) plus asexual stage malaria parasites in the absence of another major syndrome
Malaria anaemia (MA)As above, plus severe anaemia (haemoglobin <50 g/l)
Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI)Respiratory rate greater than 90th centile for age and the presence of cough or respiratory tract signs
Malnutrition (PCM)Weight for height <70% NCHS/WHO reference value,15 or visible severe wasting (marasmus), or bilateral symmetrical pedal oedema (oedematous malnutrition)15
Gastroenteritis (GE)Three or more vomits and/or 3 or more loose stools in the preceding 24 hours
AnaemiaHaemoglobin less than 50 g/l (without malaria parasites)
MeningitisAbnormal lumbar puncture findings consistent with infection13
SepsisFever (>37.5°C) in the absence of malaria parasites and focal signs