Table 1

Univariate analysis of clinical variables associated with hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia in non-neonates

HypoglycaemiaHyperglycaemia
Hypoglycaemic, n (%) n=233Normoglycaemic, n (%) n=2980Odds ratio (95% CI)p valueHyperglycaemic, n (%) n=97Normoglycaemic, n (%) n=2980Odds ratio (95% CI)p value
n is the total number of children in each category. Analysis for each clinical variable was done on the available data.
*Admitted to hospital in the preceding 14 days..
History
Last meal >12 hours47 (20.8)215 (7.3)3.3 (2.3 to 4.7)<0.0016 (6.5)215 (7.3)0.9 (0.3 to 1.9)0.771
Duration of illness ⩾5 days54 (23.7)855 (28.9)0.8 (0.6 to 1.0)0.09010 (10.8)855 (28.9)0.3 (0.2 to 0.6)<0.001
Fever197 (86.4)2490 (84.0)1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)0.34564 (68.8)2490 (84.0)0.4 (0.3 to 0.7)<0.001
Cough86 (37.7)1332 (45.0)0.7 (0.6 to 0.97)0.03432 (34.4)1332 (45.0)0.6 (0.4 to 0.98)0.043
Difficulty breathing80 (35.1)896 (30.2)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)0.12527 (29.4)896 (30.2)0.9 (0.6 to 1.5)0.858
Vomiting81 (35.5)1014 (34.2)1.1 (0.8 to 1.4)0.68934 (36.6)1014 (34.2)1.1 (0.7 to 1.7)0.642
Diarrhoea53 (23.3)656 (22.1)1.1 (0.8 to 1.5)0.69921 (22.6)656 (22.1)1.0 (0.6 to 1.7)0.921
History of seizures66 (29.0)616 (20.8)1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)0.00438 (40.9)616 (20.8)2.6 (1.7 to 4.0)<0.001
Uncountable seizures8 (3.6)27 (0.96)3.9 (1.8 to 8.4)<0.0012 (2.2)27 (0.96)2.3 (0.0 to 8.9)0.241
Admhosp1*6 (2.7)81 (2.8)0.96 (0.4 to 2.2)0.9276 (6.6)81 (2.8)2.4 (1.1 to 5.7)0.031
Antibiotics21 (9.7)365 (13.1)0.7 (0.5 to 1.1)0.1506 (6.7)365 (13.1)0.5 (0.2 to 1.1)0.079
Antimalarials57 (26.4)761 (27.4)0.95 (0.7 to 1.3)0.75225 (28.1)761 (27.4)1.0 (0.6 to 1.6)0.884
Aspirin40 (18.6)595 (21.4)0.84 (0.6 to 1.2)0.33210 (11.2)595 (21.4)0.5 (0.2 to 0.8)0.021
Observations
Hypothermia22 (9.8)92 (3.1)3.4 (2.1 to 5.5)<0.00115 (16.9)92 (3.1)6.3 (3.5 to 11.3)<0.001
Hypoxia26 (12.3)137 (4.8)2.8 (1.8 to 4.3)<0.00121 (24.7)137 (4.8)6.6 (3.9 to 11.0)<0.001
Tachypnoea, <1 year old19 (8.4)272 (9.3)0.9 (0.5 to 1.4)0.6117 (7.5)272 (9.3)0.8 (0.4 to 1.7)0.570
Tachypnoea, >1 year old58 (25.8)448 (15.3)1.9 (1.4 to 2.6)<0.00118 (19.4)448 (15.3)1.3 (0.8 to 2.2)0.279
WAZ <−349 (25.8)463 (19.0)1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.02310 (13.0)463 (19.0)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)0.183
Examination
Pedal oedema36 (15.8)318 (10.7)1.6 (1.1 to 2.3)0.0194 (4.3)318 (10.7)0.4 (0.1 to 0.98)0.046
Jaundice9 (4.0)50 (1.7)2.4 (1.2 to 4.9)0.0152 (2.2)50 (1.7)1.2 (0.0 to 4.8)0.734
Unconscious60 (26.3)148 (5.0)6.8 (4.8 to 9.5)<0.00130 (32.3)148 (5.0)9.1 (5.7 to 14.5)<0.001
Prostration83 (36.4)250 (8.4)6.2 (4.6 to 8.4)<0.00141 (44.1)250 (8.4)8.6 (5.6 to 13.1)<0.001
Deep breathing45 (19.7)125 (4.2)5.6 (3.9 to 8.1)<0.00125 (26.9)125 (4.2)8.3 (5.1 to 13.6)<0.001
Chest in-drawing69 (30.3)639 (21.6)1.6 (1.2 to 2.1)0.00228 (30.1)639 (21.6)1.5 (0.9 to 2.4)0.050
Stiff neck1 (0.44)35 (1.2)0.4 (0.0 to 2.1)0.3050 (0)35 (1.2)0.0 (0.0 to 3.5)0.291
Skin infection9 (4.0)124 (4.2)0.9 (0.5 to 1.8)0.8632 (2.2)124 (4.2)0.5 (0.0 to 1.9)0.331
Basic investigation
Malaria slide positive156 (67)1719 (57.9)1.5 (1.1 to 2.0)0.00651 (52.6)1719 (57.9)0.8 (0.5 to 1.2)0.312
Severe anaemia49 (21.3)469 (15.8)1.4 (1.0 to 2.0)0.02910 (10.3)469 (15.8)0.6 (0.3 to 1.2)0.142