Table 2

Long term consequences of childhood obesity: references appraised

First author, yearReferenceEvidence level
++, indicates all or most methodological quality criteria met, low risk of bias.
+, indicates that some methodological quality criteria were not met or inadequately described, but low risk of bias.
Socioeconomic effects
Sargent, 1994Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med148:681–72+
Gortmaker, 1993N Engl J Med329:1008–122+
Obesity persistence
Serdula, 1993Prev Med22:167–772+
Lake, 1997Am J Clin Nutr77:376–812+
Whitaker, 1997N Engl J Med377:869–732+
Laitinen, 2001Am J Clin Nutr74:287–942++
Hardy, 2000Int J Obes24:725–342+
Mo Suwan, 2000Int J Obes24:1642–72+
Freedman, 2001Pediatrics108:712–182++
Adult morbidity/mortality
Hoffmans, 1988J Clin Epidemiol4:749–562+
Cardiovascular risk factors
Smoak, 1987Am J Epidemiol125:364–722+
Wattigney, 1991Arch Intern Med151:2017–222++
McGill, 1995Arterioscler Thromb Biol15:431–402++
Bao, 1994Arch Intern Med154:1842–72++
Bao, 1997JAMA278:1749–542++
Berenson, 1998Am J Epidemiol125:364–722++
Wattigney, 1995Prev Med24:617–262++
Freedman, 2001Pediatrics108:712–182++