Table 1

Risk factors for mental health problems in refugee children

Parental factors
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in either parent49
Maternal depression24
Torture, especially in mother14
Death of or separation from parents24,50
Direct observation of the helplessness of parents12,14
Underestimation of stress levels in children by parents51
Unemployment of parents12
Child factors
Number of traumatic events—either experienced or witnessed52
Expressive language difficulties14
PTSD leading to long term vulnerability in stressful situations53
Physical health problems from either trauma or malnutrition54
Older age12
Environmental factors
Number of transitions36
Time taken for immigration status to be determined55
Cultural isolation24
Period of time in a refugee camp14
Time in host country (risk possibly increases with time)21