Table 1

Findings on presentation of bacterial meningitis in different HIV status groups

HIV seropositivityHIV+ (%)HIV− (%)Significant differences between HIV+ and HIV− groups
Number of children157302
Median age (months) [range]12 [2–168]12 [2–164]
Male:female47:5360:40
Median % wt for age [range]73 [39–126]81 [39–123]
Median fever (days) [range]3 [0–60]3 [0–30]
⩽2 days fever76 (48)114 (38)
History of seizures94 (60)132 (44)p = 001, OR 1.92 (1.27 to 2.90)
Focal fits (%of fits)19(12)29(22)p = 0.5, OR 1.3 (0.67 to 2.49)
Not sucking90 (57)128 (42)p = 0.03
Prior antibiotics73 (46)101 (33)
Ear infection32 (20)24 (8)p = 0.0002, OR 2.97 (1.61 to 5.48)
Focus of infection85 (54)57 (19)p = 0.0001, OR 5.07 (3.2 to 7.96)
Coma score ⩽267 (43)111 (37)p = 0.26
Skin rash18 (11)11 (4)p = 0.02, OR 3.43 (1.49 to 7.99)
Generalised LN++32 (20)12 (4)p<0.00001, OR 6.19 (2.95 to 13.18)
Hepatomegaly65 (41)51 (17)p<0.00001, OR 3.48 (2.19 to 5.52)
Splenomegaly43 (27)59 (19.5)p = 0.07, OR 1.4 (1 to 1.97)
Shock33 (21)12 (4)p<0.00001, OR 6.43 (3.08 to 13.69)
Mean blood glucose (mmol/l) [range]5.6 [0–37]5.9 [0–13]
Median temp (°C) [range]38 [34–41]38.4 [35–40.8]
Median haematocrit (mg/l) [range]290 [160–450]300 [70–500]
Malaria parasites +(13.4)(16.4)
H influenzae 32 (20)98 (32)p = 0.009, OR 0.53 (0.33 to 0.86)
S pneumoniae 92 (58)98 (32)p<0.0001, OR 2.95 (1.94 to 4.48)
N meningitidis 4 (2)32 (10.5)p = 0.004, OR 0.22 (0.06 to 0.67)
Salmonellae spp.10 (6)14 (5)p = 0.56, OR 1.4 (0.56 to 3.45)
No growth14 (9)50 (16.5)p = 0.035, OR 0.49 (0.25 to 0.96)
Other5 (3)10 (3)p = 0.8