Table 2

Abnormalities in history, on examination or investigation of children presenting with voiding dysfunction

MRI normal* (n=43)MRI abnormal (n=5)
*Including those with unrelated abnormality on MRI spine.
†Other = sensation of incomplete emptying.
‡Included the following in isolation or combination: brisk lower limb reflexes (n=4), talipes equinovarus (n=1), absent ankle reflexes (n=1), pes cavus (n=1).
§As detailed in text, excluding failure of fusion L5/ S1 vertebral arches.
¶As detailed in text.
Urinary symptoms
    Daytime wetting414
    Impaired bladder sensation42
    Difficulty voiding21
    Urinary retention01
Other symptoms/features from history
    Constipation/faecal soiling221
    Family history spina bifida40
    Maternal pregestational diabetes mellitus20
    Neurofibromatosis type 110
Clinical findings
    Lower limb neuro-orthopaedic abnormalities‡42
    Cutaneous abnormalities overlying lumbosacral spine102
    Anorectal anomaly02
Investigations other than MRI spine
    Abnormal lumbosacral spine x ray§51
    Incomplete bladder emptying on ultrasound scan81
    Urodynamic studies suggestive of neuropathic vesicourethral dysfunction¶34