Table 1

Details of children with spinal cord abnormality detected on MRI spine

Patient no.12345
*Normal variant.
UTI, urinary tract infection; DSD, detrusor sphincter dyssynergia.
Age at MRI (y)12.211.54..912.90.5
HistoryImperforate anus, difficulty voiding, UTIRecurrent UTI, daytime wetting, constipation, incomplete bladder emptyingFallot’s tetralogy, anal atresia, impaired bladder sensation, UTIDaytime wetting, impaired sensationUrinary retention, UTI
Physical examinationBrisk lower limb reflexesNormalNormal neuro-orthopaedic and cutaneous examinationCapillary haemangioma lumbosacral region, absent left ankle reflexDeep sacral pit and hairy tuft lower lumbar spine
Spine x rayShort sacrum, lumbar vertebral abnormalitiesFailure of fusion S1 vertebral arches*Not doneNot doneNot done
VUDOpen bladder neck, reduced capacity with low grade contractions. emptying by strainingDetrusor hyperreflexia, incomplete emptyingHyperreflexia, poorly compliant bladder, incomplete emptyingRefusedNot emptying despite high pressure contractions, DSD
MRI spineCaudal regressionIntraspinal lipoma, tethered cordHydromyelia thoracic and lower cervical cord, caudal regressionLow terminating cordCaudal regression