Table 1

Changing physician behaviour

Traditional continuing medical education and passive distribution of information is not effective
Continuing medical education that includes interactive interventions is effective
Creation and promulgation of guidelines does not impact on patient care
Guideline implementation within an organisation can be effective
Clinical paths improve inpatient care
Reminders, both patient and physician, improve quality of preventive health services
Educational outreach is effective, but time consuming and expensive
Audit and feedback alone is modestly effective
Financial incentives can change physician behaviour under certain circumstances