Table 1

Factors promoting or inhibiting transmission of virus by breast feeding

Promoting Inhibitory
Milk viral load/infected milk cell countAntiviral antibody32
Clinical mastitis, abscess20 27 TGF-β33
Subclinical mastitis38 High carotenoid levels34
Multiple maternal viral infectionsLactoferrin35
Mixed feeding11 Protease inhibitor SLP136
Prematurity, mouth ulcers in infantLipid molecules37
RANTES, GM-CSF28 29 Specific T lymphocyte killing
Lysozyme, mucins
Antiviral drugs
Unclear:  Maternal nutrition (e.g. antioxidants, lipids, trace elements, vitamins), period of lactation, lactation history