Table 1

Table outlining diagnoses of index and control groups, age, gender, number of participants, and main outcome measures for some of the studies of non-malignant conditions discussed

Study Index group diagnoses Control group diagnoses Number of subjects Subjects: gender age (years) No. of controls Controls: gender age (years) Main outcome measures used
9Pless et al, 1989HeterogeneousBirth cohort—no chronic illness467 at startBoys > girls4895 at startLast assessed 36 1-150PSE10 aged 36, sociodemographic enquiry
Last assessed 36
8Jacobson et al, 1997IDDMAcute medical problem same   year as subject recruited5729M, 28F5436M, 18FSociodemographic enquiry, Symptom Checklist  (SCL-90),11 Harter Perceived Competence Scale12
Mean 22.9, SD 2.1Mean 22.9, SD 2
13Kokkonen and Kokkonen, 1993HeterogeneousGeneral pop. controls407223M, 184F20299M, 103F 1-150PSE10
14Kokkonen, 1995HeterogeneousGeneral pop. controls487265M, 222F20299M, 103FSociodemographic enquiry
22.1 (19–25)
15 Morton et al, 1994Renal disorders (paediatric   dialysis and transplant prog.)Healthy controls (GP registers)4521M, 24F4825M, 23F 1-150SADS-L,16 Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale17
Mean 24.8, SD 3.7Mean 24.7, range 17–35
18 Reynolds et al, 1993Renal disorders (as above)Healthy controls4521M, 24F4825M, 23FSociodemographic enquiry, Stress and Social  Support Inventory19
Mean 24.8, range 17–35Mean 25 (4.1)
20Pearson et al, 1991Cystic fibrosis adultsCystic fibrosis children3620M, 16F6134M, 27FEAT,21 STAIC,22CDI,23 STAI,24 ZUNG,25 SCL-9011
24.8 (16–40)10.96 (8–15)
26Blair et al, 1993Cystic fibrosisAnorexia2920M, 9F(a) 27(a) 2M, 25FStructured clinical interview for psychiatric  disorder, GHQ27
Healthy controls19.2 (2.7)(b) 3118.7 (3.2)
(b) 8M, 23F
18.2 (2.6)
28Walters et al, 1993Cystic fibrosisN/A866423M, 397FN/AN/ASociodemographic enquiry
Median 22, 17–67
29David et al, 1994Juvenile arthritis (JCA)N/A43M:F, 1:3N/AN/ABDI,30 GHQ27
Mean 26.7, SD 7.8
31Petersonet al, 1997Juvenile arthritisClinic attenders without JCA4413M, 31F10229M, 73FSociodemographic enquiry
Median 33.5, 19–4533.6 (19–49)
32Utenset al, 1994Congenital heart disease  (surgically corrected)General population288147 M, 141F336223M, 113FDutch Personality Questionnaire,33  sociodemographic enquiry
Mean age 22.7Mean 22.2
  • Sociodemographic information was obtained by self report questionnaire or by interview in different studies.

  • 1-150 Validated psychiatric research interview. All other named psychiatric status measures are self report questionnaires.

  • IDDM, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; PSE, Present State Examination; SADS-L, Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia, Life-time version; GHQ, General Health Questionnaire; EAT, Eating Attitudes Test; STAI(C), Stait–Trait Anxiety Inventory (for Children); CDI, Child Depression Inventory; ZUNG, Zung Self-Report Depression Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory.