Table 1

Risk of congenital anomalies by socioeconomic deprivation—odds ratios for the most deprived compared to the most affluent deprivation quintile    

Malformation group n OR1-150 95% CI
All non-chromosomal anomalies 6651.411.04–1.91
Neural tube defects1071.230.63–2.37
Other central nervous system defects 331.340.41–4.40
All cardiac malformations2301.590.98–2.59
 Malformations of cardiac chambers and connections301.940.53–7.13
 Malformations of cardiac septa1352.821.43–5.56
 Malformations of cardiac valves741.490.66–3.36
 Malformations of great arteries and veins771.040.48–2.23
Oral clefts730.950.44–2.05
 Cleft palate290.950.29–3.09
 Cleft lip/palate440.970.36–2.63
Tracheo-oesophageal anomalies 201.530.29–7.95
Digestive system anomalies443.531.11–11.18
Renal and urinary anomalies781.510.68–3.35
Limb reduction defects271.220.34–4.32
Abdominal wall defects201.570.35–7.05
Multiple malformations1-151 562.580.95–7.01
All chromosomal anomalies 1910.730.44–1.21
Down's syndrome1390.800.44–1.45
  • 1-150 Estimated from log linear model and adjusted for maternal age, year of birth, study region, and distance from landfill site.

  • 1-151 Two or more major malformations.