Table 1

Observation measures to be used in the medical setting

Author and instrument Method Variables
Katz et al (1980).1 The procedure behaviour rating scale (PBRS-R) 8 months to 17 years; the observer registers the presence/absence of behaviours at four specific moments in time; the degree of discomfort is determined by the total number of behaviours registered25 (reduced to 13) distress behaviour categories indicating distress (for example, tears, screams, resisting, refusal position)
LeBaron and Zeltzer (1984).5 The procedure behaviour checklist (PBCL is based on the PBRS-R)6–18 year olds; the observer rates their intensity on a 1–5 scale (1, very mild; 5, extremely intense); good reliability and validity 13 (reduced to 8) distress behaviour categories (for example, pain verbalised, screams, anxiety verbalised)
Jay and Elliott (1984; 1986).6 7 Observation scale for behavioural distress (OSBD)1-150 6 months to 20 years; number and intensity of distress behaviour before/during/after the procedure; multiple behaviours during 15 second intervals; presence/absence; structured recording sheet; good reliability and validity11 (reduced to 8) distress behaviours (table 2)
  • 1-150 Available from first author.