Table 3

Number of children with clinical findings and univariate analysis results for clinical findings associated with any degree of parasitaemia of malaria in the low risk season and with any degree of parasitaemia in addition to parasitaemia ⩾ 10 000/μl in the high risk season among 2490 children studied

High risk seasonLow risk season
Parasitaemia > 0 (n = 511)Parasitaemia > 10000 (n = 69)Parasitaemia > 0 (n = 48)
nOdds ratio (95% CI)nOdds ratio (95% CI)nOdds ratio (95% CI)
Malarious area4311.94 (1.57 to 2.40)581.98 (0.99 to 4.06)3-160 353.96 (2.13 to 7.37)
Travel history2132.29 (2.00 to 2.63)435.74 (3.37 to 9.81)10.33 (0.05 to 2.37)3-160
Previous attack1601.89 (1.63 to 2.18)171.39 (0.76–2.52)3-160 214.74 (2.77 to 8.08)
Intermittent fever3901.70 (1.39 to 2.08)521.43 (1.12 to 2.37)482.16 (0.69 to 6.83)3-160
Chills/rigors2262.70 (2.36 to 3.09)384.48 (2.67 to 7.55)112.92 (1.56 to 5.49)
Running nose780.67 (0.54 to 0.83)70.41 (0.17 to 0.95)140.36 (0.20 to 0.66)
Diarrhoea1530.72 (0.61 to 0.85)210.71 (0.41 to 1.24)3-160 170.50 (0.28 to 0.88)
Earache420.71 (0.54 to 0.93)70.89 (0.36 to 2.07)3-160 30.20 (0.06 to 0.62)
Poor feeding3660.83 (0.71 to 0.98)360.46 (0.27 to 0.78)360.96 (0.51 to1.80)3-160
Convulsion512.24 (1.87 to 2.69)72.42 (0.97 to 5.76)3-160 0 3-150
Cough2480.60 (0.52 to 0.69)360.59 (0.35 to 0.99)200.55 (0.31 to 0.95)
Difficult breathing2531.51 (1.31 to1.75)453.01 (1.76 to 5.17)130.51 (0.27 to 0.94)
Pallor2752.83 (2.46 to 3.25)332.32 (1.38 to 3.88)175.39 (3.14 to 9.27)
Tonsillar exudates230.34 (0.23 to 0.50)10.10 (0.00 to 0.65)10.39 (0.06 to 2.79)3-160
Red/bulging ear drum270.68 (0.49 to 0.97)10.17 (0.01 to 1.18)3-160 10.51 (0.07 to 3.59)3-160
Fast breathing2611.24 (1.07 to 1.44)431.58 (1.34 to 1.84)210.84 (0.45 to 1.5)3-160
Grunting1531.23 (1.05 to 1.44)221.36 (0.78 to 2.37)3-160 30.57 (0.18 to 1.79)3-160
Chest indrawing250.53 (0.37 to 0.76)20.29 (0.05 to 1.25)3-160 50.49 (0.20 to 1.22)3-160
Crepitations440.37 (0.28 to 0.49)40.23 (0.07 to 0.67)80.49 (0.23 to 1.03)3-160
Pulsations over neck62.23 (1.40 to 3.56)0 3-150 10.98 (0.14 to 6.71)3-160
Gallop rythmn91.77 (1.13 to 2.79)11.49 (0.00 to 11.04)3-160 0 3-150
Systolic murmur82.24 (1.49 to 3.36)12.17 (0.00 to 16.81)3-160 15.67 (1.12 to 28.75)
Hepatomegaly2012.69 (2.36 to 3.07)364.92 (2.92 to 8.28)11.87 (0.29 to 12.15)3-160
Liver tenderness1152.52 (2.20 to 2.89)255.59 (3.20 to 9.71)14.33 (0.78 to 24.20)3-160
Splenomegaly2563.65 (3.20 to 4.14)426.16 (3.62 to 10.45)1214.91 (9.42 to 23.62)
Dehydration signs320.47 (0.29 to 0.76)320.74 (0.46 to 0.98)30.46 (0.11 to 1.86)3-160
Peripheral oedema261.63 (1.23 to 2.18)20.89 (0.00 to 3.88)3-160 10.98 (0.14 to 6.71)3-160
Measles rash30.21 (0.07 to 0.63)10.76 (0.00 to 5.39)3-160 10.23 (0.03 to 1.80)3-160
  • 3-150 Odds ratios not computed because there were no children with the clinical finding.

  • 3-160 Non-significant odds ratios, all others are significant.

  • CI, confidence interval.