Table 1

Causes of diabetes insipidus

Cranial diabetes insipidus
Autosomal dominant
DIDMOAD syndrome
Cerebral malformations
In association with septo-optic dysplasia
Laurence-Moon-Beidl syndrome
Trauma (neurosurgery, head injury)
Tumours (such as craniopharyngioma, germinoma, optic  glioma)
Hypoxic/ischaemic brain damage
Lymphocytic neurohypophysitis
Granuloma (tuberculosis, sarcoid, histiocytosis)
Infections (congenital cytomegalovirus and toxoplamosis,  encephalitis, meningitis)
Vascular (aneurysm, malformations)
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus
X linked recessive inheritance (V2 receptor gene defect)
Autosomal recessive inheritance (aquaporin 2 gene defect)
Osmotic diuresis (diabetes mellitus)
Metabolic (hypercalcaemia, hypokalaemia)
Chronic renal disease
Drugs (lithium, demeclocycline)
Postobstructive uropathy
Solute washout from renal medulla
Primary polydipsia
Compulsive or habitual
In association with psychological disturbance
Drugs (lithium, carbamazepine)
Hypothalamic lesion
  • DIDMOAD, crainia diabetes insipidus (DI), diabetes mellitus (DM), optic atrophy (OA, and deafness (D).