Table 4

Multivariate odds ratios of soothing techniques by sociodemographic factors and crying behaviour

Soothing techniqueBoy
v girl
First v
later born
Surinam
v Dutch
Turkey
v Dutch
Morocco
v Dutch
Other country
v Dutch
Poor v high educationCrying infant* v not crying infant
Taking in bed2.49
Holding and carrying(1.68)(0.48)0.24(0.47)(0.54)2.66
Buggy ride0.321.97
Car ride2.42
Music1.780.581.451.99
Rocking(1.24)1.343.940.560.640.562.30
Pacifier1.421.390.49(1.41)(1.51)
Bathe1.97
Massage1.360.55(2.06)(1.34)
Herbal tea1.311.45(0.67)3.67(0.63)0.612.05
Crying it out(1.92)1.611.81
Night bottle2.745.407.372.962.712.20
Swaddling(0.46)(2.56)3.100.24(1.47)
Prone sleeping position0.752.613.931.901.551.46
Stopping breast feeding1.84
Amonishing(1.30)1.714.451.87
Shaking6.36(2.52)4.322.24
Slapping(2.71)6.37(3.26)5.924.083.02
Laxatives(1.93)
  • Only odds ratios with p < 0.05 or p < 0.10 are presented; p < 0.10 for odds ratios in parentheses. No multivariate odds ratios were calculated for “smothering”, “hypnotics and sedatives”, and “painkillers”, because of empty cells in logistic regression model. *According to at least one of the three definitions mentioned.