Table 4

Adjusted analyses of length for age z score outcome at birth

CovariatesTwo covariate modelFinal model
z score change (95% CI)p valuez score change (95% CI)p value
HIV uninfected* −0.27  (0.02, −0.58)0.074−0.15 (0.19, −0.51)0.376
Male sex0.11 (−0.18, 0.42)0.439
First born0.11 (−0.22, 0.45)0.509
Lower father’s income−0.08 (0.22, −0.39)0.588
Maternal age ⩾ 30 years−0.27 (0.05, −0.60)0.100−0.18 (0.11, −0.48)0.224
Mother’s education ⩽ 14 years−0.19 (0.10, −0.50)0.204
Maternal drug addiction in pregnancy−0.50 (−0.04, −0.97)0.034−0.49 (−0.04, −0.93)0.030
Maternal smoking in pregnancy−0.49 (−0.04, −0.94)0.032−0.45 (−0.01, −0.90)0.044
HIV mothers’ symptomatic infection−0.60 (0.12, −1.34)0.104−0.69 (0.01, −1.39)0.054
  • Values are the estimated change in mean length for age z score outcome for the indicated covariate exposure category versus its complementary group. The two covariate model column gives the unadjusted effect of the HIV status (uninfected versus reference) (*) and the effect sizes of each covariate after adjustment only for the HIV status. The final (adjusted) model column gives the effect sizes of the two covariates with non-significant results before being dropped and the three covariates that have a p value less than or close to 0.05 in the final model.