Table 1

Multiple causes of human renal malformations

 Dietary agents, for example vitamin A
 Metabolites, for example glucose
 Drugs, for example angiotensin enzyme converting inhibitors
Obstruction of fetal urinary tract
 Anatomical obstruction, for example urethral valves
 Physiological obstruction, for example neurogenic bladder
Primary genetic defects
 Transcription factors, for example PAX2 mutation in renal-coloboma  syndrome
 Growth factor signalling, for exampleFGFR2 mutation in Apert’s
 Cell adhesion molecules, for example KAL mutation in X linked Kallmann’s  syndrome
 Miscellaneous, for example mutation of peroxisomal protein in Zellweger  syndrome