Table 3

Significant (p<0.05) effect sizes of the main and individual associations

AssociationsKESVariance95% CII2FSNr
Any RP
 General BP220.4120.0040.281 to 0.54444.0*433−0.382
 Externalising150.5070.0090.318 to 0.69765.6***276−0.361
 Internalising110.3450.0050.203 to 0.4880.00046 0.437
 ADHD130.3630.0140.130 to 0.59673.0***106−0.435
Crying problems
 General BP100.5060.0100.308 to 0.70433.46594 0.248
 Externalising90.5620.0170.309 to 0.81556.428*93 0.100
 Internalising50.4980.0140.270 to 0.7260.00017 0.600
 ADHD60.4170.0330.059 to 0.77464.442**20 0.600
Feeding problems
 General BP30.2110.0030.102 to 0.3190.0006 0.500
Sleeping problems
 General BP50.4230.0280.094 to 0.75235.63715−0.700
 Internalising30.2390.0110.035 to 0.4430.0001−1.000***
 ADHD21.3030.3180.198 to 2.4080.0000−1.000***
Multiple RP
 General BP40.4450.0450.031 to 0.85954.361*12−1.000***
  • Positive effect sizes indicate higher rating of behavioural problems for children with regulatory problems.

  • No effect was found for the associations feeding–externalising (z=1.07; p>0.05), feeding–internalising (z=−0.11; p>0.05), feeding–ADHD (z=1.05; p>0.05), sleeping-externalising (z=1.667; p>0.05), multiple–ADHD outcomes (z=0.550; p>0.05) or multiple–internalising and externalising outcomes (referred to only one study).

  • * p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; BP, behavioural problems; ES, weighted mean effect size (d); FSN, Rosenthal's fail-safe N; I2, ratio of true heterogeneity to total variation in observed effects; K, number of studies; r, correlation of sample sizes to ES (negative correlations indicate that ES may be overestimated29); RP, regulatory problems.