Table 1

Study characteristics: samples and definition of regulatory problems at baseline of included studies

StudyNRPNControlAge1SampleType of RPRP durationM-tech1*Informant on RPRP diagnosis criteriaSOCFamily1*Number of risk factors
Canivet et al43501023CommCryingTransientD/IMWessel et al20No1
DeSantis et al1214 persistent RP14 transient RP2ClinCryingPersistentD/IMNumber of hours of crying and/or fussingNo2
Elliot et al4410721.8CommCryingTransientQMWessel et al20No1
Neu and Robinson4520202.5CommCryingTransientI/QMMinimum 2.8 h/day crying for at least 3 days in 1 monthYesParent–infant interaction1
Papousek et al4660454.1ClinCryingPersistentDMWessel et al20NoPsychosocial situation, maternal psychopathology, family functioning, parent–infant interaction5
Rao et al4791652.4CommCryingPersistentI/QM/EDaily uncontrolled crying for no apparent reason for at least 2 weeksNo2
Rautava et al483385273CommCryingTransientQM/EColic questionnaire, scores 1–3 (no colic), 4 (moderate colic) or 5 (severe colic)Yes1
Savino et al4948482ClinCryingTransientWessel et al20No2
St James-Roberts et al1167 persistent RP (referred to colic)38 evening criers1CommCryingTransientI/DMModified Wessel et al20YesParent–infant interaction, maternal psychopathology, family functioning3
55 moderate criers
Wolke et al1364644ClinCryingPersistentDMModified Wessel et al20Yes2
Lam et al5036789CommSleepingTransientQMCare giver considers baby's sleep as problematicYesMaternal psychopathology2
Scher et al1413 poor sleepers12 good sleepers3CommSleepingPersistentQMCare giver considers baby's sleep as problematicNo2
Thunström5125258.5CommSleepingTransientI/DMMore than 2 night wakings/night; baby needs more than 15 min to fall asleepNoPsychosocial situation, parent–infant interaction4
Zuckerman et al522333 transient RP8CommSleepingPersistentIMMore than 3 night wakings/night; baby needs more than 1 h to fall asleep (after night waking) or any problem causing severe disruption to the mother's sleepYesPsychosocial situation, maternal psychopathology3
Dahl2225257.8ClinFeedingTransientI/OM/ERTE for at least 1 month without medical reasonNoParent–infant interaction, psychosocial situation1
Lindberg53102110.5ClinFeedingPersistentI/OM/EMinimum of 1 month of RTENoPsychosocial situation, parent–infant interaction5
Motion et al5437310 6691CommFeedingTransientQMFeeding difficulties for 4 weeksNo1
Becker et al55552643ClinCrying/sleeping/feedingTransientI/OM/E1 SD above the mean for one factor=isolated RP; 1 SD above the mean for irritable and somatic functioning=multiple RPYesPsychosocial situation, parent–infant interaction4
DeGangi et al159139.5ClinCrying/sleeping/feedingTransientI/OM/ECrying: difficulties with self-consoling, hypersensitive to new stimulations; baby needs more than 20 min to fall asleep, frequent night wakings (>2/night); baby shows distress at feeding timeNo2
DeGangi et al4223818.5ClinCrying/sleeping/feedingTransientI/QMCrying: difficulties with self-consoling, hypersensitive to new stimulations; baby needs more than 20 min to fall asleep, frequent night wakings (>2/night); baby shows distress at feeding timeYesParent–infant interaction2
Forsyth and Canny11152054CommCrying/feedingTransientIMCare giver considers baby's crying and feeding as a problemYes2
Wake et al5684 RP (sleep problems)3138 (sleeping)CommCrying/sleepingTransientQ/DMCare giver considers baby's crying and sleeping as a problemYes1
55 RP (cry/fuss problems)2 (crying)
  • NRP and NControl may be different from total participants at follow-up due to subgroup analyses in some studies.

  • * Details on specific regulatory problems or family risk factor assessment instruments available from the first author on request.

  • Duplicated data, one assessment point randomly selected.

  • NRP, number of RP infants; NControl, number of control children; RP, regulatory problems; Age1, mean age at baseline (months); Sample, Clin, Clinically referred sample; Comm, community based sample; M-tech1, measurement technology1; D, diary; I, interview; Q, questionnaire; O, observation; Informant on RP, M, mother; E, Expert; SOC, sociodemographic information available; Family1, family risks assessed at baseline.