Table 2

Assessment of behavioural outcomes in childhood of included studies

StudyNRPNControlAge2Type of BPM-tech2*Informant on BPES (d)
Canivet et al43501024E/I/ADHDRutter Preschool QuestionnaireM 0.47
DeSantis et al1214 persistent RP14 transient RP5.6E/I/ADHD/GSensory Profile, CBCL and TRFM/T−0.04
Elliot et al4410723GCBCLM 0.21
Neu and Robinson4520207E/I/ADHDBSQ, ADHD Checklist of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents, Revised, CBCLM/E 0.56
Papousek et al4660452.5E/IICQ, CBCLM 0.76
Rao et al4791655ADHDPICE 0.97
Rautava et al483385273ECBCL, DDSTM 0.26
Savino et al49484810EM 1.31
St James-Roberts et al1167 persistent RP (referred to colic)38 evening criers1.3E/ADHD/GBSQM/E 0.46
55 moderate criersBayley Scales of Infant Development and IBR
Wolke et al1364649.7E/I/ADHD/GSDQM/C/T 0.64
Lam et al5036783.6E/ICBCLM 0.34
Scher et al1413 poor sleepers12 good sleepers3.5GCBCLM 0.88
Thunström5125255.5ADHDPPQ, PSQ, Griffiths Developmental Scale II, Scandinavian MPU, Standardised Interview Schedule for Criteria for ADHDM/E 1.67
Zuckerman et al522333 transient RP3E/I/ADHDBSQM 0.98
Dahl2225252E/I/ADHDPreformulated list: sleeping problems, shyness/fears, whining, hyperactive and restless, temper tantrumsM 1.07
Lindberg5310217.5I/GRutter Child QuestionnaireM/T 0.09
Motion et al5437310 6693.9E/ADHDSDQM 0.21
Becker et al55552646.4ADHD/GMannheim Parent InterviewM/C/E 0.34
DeGangi et al159134ADHD/GSensorimotor History QuestionnaireE 1.82
DeGangi et al422383E/ICBCLM 0.96
Forsyth and Canny11152053.5ADHD/GBCLM 0.08
Wake et al5684 RP (sleep problems)3132E/I/GCBCLM 0.20
55 RP (cry/fuss problems)
  • NRP and NControl may be different from total participants at follow-up due to subgroup analyses in some studies.

  • * References of the behavioural problem assessment instruments available from the first author on request.

  • Duplicated data, one assessment point randomly selected.

  • NRP, number of RP infants; NControl, number of control children; RP, regulatory problems; Age2, mean age at follow-up (years); Type of BP: ADHD, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder; E, externalising; G, general; I, internalising; M-tech2, measurement technology 2: BCL, Richman Behaviour Checklist; BSQ, Behavioural Style Questionnaire; CBCL, Child Behavior Checklist; DDST, Denver Development Screening Test; EAS, Emotionality, Activity and Sociability questionnaire; IBR, Infant Behaviour Record; ICQ, Infant Characteristics Questionnaire; MPU, Motor-Perceptual Scale; PIC, Personality Inventory for Children; PPQ, Psychomotor Questionnaire; PSQ, Preschool Questionnaire; SDQ, Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire; TRF, Teacher Report Form; Informant on BP: C, child; E, expert; M, mother; T, teacher; ES (d), weighted mean effect size (d).