Citation Study group Study type (level of evidence) Outcome Key results Comments

Heaton and Arthur (1998) 65 children with pneumonia (history, clinical and radiological diagnosis); mean age 3.5 years (0.4–13) Retrospective cohort
(level 4)
Chest radiograph findings at follow up 37/41 children asymptomatic:
35 (95%) normal CXR (95% CI 87% to 100%)
2 improved (5%) CXR
Only 41/65 children followed up fully; 11 were not offered follow up and a further 13 were lost to follow up
Gibson et al (1993) 77 children with pneumonia (history, clinical and radiological diagnosis) Prospective cohort
(level 4)
Clinical symptoms, signs and chest radiograph findings at follow up 59/72 children asymptomatic:
51 (87%) normal CXR
8 (13%) improved CXR
5 patients defaulted follow up.; 7 of the 8 patients with symptoms, signs, and radiological findings at follow up had pleural effusions on their original chest x ray
Grossman et al (1979) 129 children with a radiological diagnosis of pneumonia. (6 weeks – 15 years) Prospective cohort
(level 4)
Chest radiograph findings at follow up 56/70 (80%) children normal CXR by 4 weeks; 9/9 (100%) children with residual CXR changes at 4 weeks had normal CXR by 3 months 59 were lost to first follow up; no data regarding clinical symptoms and signs was collected at follow up