October 14, 2021
- Original researchAssociation of childhood tracheomalacia with bronchiectasis: a case–control study
In this case-control study, Thomas et al identify a significant association between tracheomalacia and bronchiectasis (adjusted Odds Ratio 13) which should guide the investigation of children with tracheomalacia and chronic cough.
- Images in paediatricsBorrelial lymphocytoma presentations of the ear
October 08, 2021
October 07, 2021
- Quality improvementBReATHE interventions (Beating Regional Asthma Through Health Education)—an innovative approach to children’s asthma care in the North East and North Cumbria, UK: an interventional study
In this quality improvement report, multiple interventions aimed at promoting health professionals’ adherence to national guidelines and supporting patient self management through improved patient education, resulted in a significant and sustained reduction in unscheduled paediatric asthma admissions.
October 05, 2021
- Original researchFriedreich’s ataxia-associated childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a national cohort study
In the largest cohort of children with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy associated with Friedrich's Ataxia presented to date a surprisingly high prevalence of atrial arrhythmias are described, and a reminder of the need for serial cardiac screening in these children is reinforced.
October 01, 2021
September 29, 2021
September 28, 2021
- Short reportPrevalence of neurological problems in a community-based sample of paediatric coeliac disease: a cross-sectional study
In a community based sample of children with coeliac disease a lower prevalence of neurological problems was identified than has been described in adult populations.
September 27, 2021
- Original researchDosing of enteral acetaminophen in critically ill children: a cohort study
Prescribing paracetamol is one of the most common therapeutic interventions in hospitals. This large retrospective study review when under- and over-dosing occurs in children in PICU, and finds age, cardiac admission are significant risk factors.
September 22, 2021
- Original researchUse of home parenteral nutrition in severely neurologically impaired children
This case series explores the decision making around home parenteral nutrition (HPN) for a group of five children with a combination of severe neurodisability and intestinal failure, the involvement of a clinical ethics team and subsequent outcomes. The authors conclude that HPN can help relieve difficult symptoms and be justified as part of good palliative care. The importance of thorough assessment before committing to long term treatment is emphasised.
- Images in paediatricsTerry’s nails in an infant with liver cirrhosis
September 21, 2021
- Original researchIs the NICE traffic light system fit-for-purpose for children presenting with undifferentiated acute illness in primary care?
Secondary analysis of participants from the DUTY study. Assesses performance of NICE guidance. Included 6,797 children under fives 94% were amber or red i.e. needing referral to secondary care Demonstrates that NICE traffic light tool not useful in primary care
September 20, 2021
- Original researchInconsistencies in fertility preservation for young people with cancer in the UK
This study highlights marked variation in provision and funding of fertility preservation services for children with cancer across the UK. Based on these findings, the authors argue that centralised NHS funding should be made available to ensure equitable provision of fertility preservation services and delivery of internationally acknowledged quality standards to all young people with cancer across the UK.
September 17, 2021
- Original researchCategorising high-cost high-need children and young people
A retrospective observational clinical database study shows the top 5% of CYP (high-cost high-need patients) account for more than half of our annual spending for CYP, largely driven by inpatients. The most common diagnoses are mental health, metabolic, respiratory, neurological conditions.
September 16, 2021
- Original researchValidating clinical practice guidelines for the management of febrile infants presenting to the emergency department in the UK and Ireland
This retrospective cohort study assessed the performance of Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) in the diagnosis of serious bacterial infections in infants with fever in the UK /Ireland and found that no CPG performed in an ideal manner, suggesting the need for further study.
September 15, 2021
- Global child healthBarriers to seeking timely treatment for severe childhood pneumonia in rural Bangladesh
Lower respiratory illness remains the largest cause of mortality for children under 5 worldwide. Early intervention and care can be profoundly lifesaving, but significant barriers to seeking care remain. In this qualitative study, several are identified among Bangladeshi mothers.
- Original researchFactors associated with severe respiratory syncytial virus disease in hospitalised children: a retrospective analysis
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease places a large burden on healthcare systems. Early recognition of children at risk of severe RSV disease may be useful. This study finds younger age (<2 months) and prematurity are associated with increased severity of RSV disease. An association between Para-influenza virus type 3/RSV co-detection and severe disease may warrant further investigation.
- Global child healthPertussis seroprevalence in mother–infant pairs from India: role of maternal immunisation
This observational study showed that in one location in India, pertussis immunity among pregnant women was low (12%) pertussis immunization in early pregnancy resulted in a higher proportion (54%) of mothers and newborns with pertussis antibodies at a protective level. The appropriate timing of maternal immunization is discussed.
September 14, 2021
- Original researchAssessing the optimal time interval between growth measurements using a combined data set of weights and heights from 5948 infants
Using routinely collected weight and length measurements of young infants, authors report measurement intervals 4 to 8 weeks apart likely reflect true growth, rather than noise from measurement error or short-term variation. After 6 months of age, measurements two weeks or less apart should be treated with caution when assessing growth faltering.
September 11, 2021
- Global child healthNeurodevelopment in normocephalic children with and without prenatal Zika virus exposure
A follow up study of infants born to mothers with pregnancy exposure to Zika virus showed infants who had been exposed to Zika virus but who had a normal head circumference had overall normal development, but all such Zika virus infants should undergo formal visual testing.
September 05, 2021
September 03, 2021
- Global child healthChild growth and neurodevelopment after maternal antenatal antibiotic treatment
Studying anti-infective therapy during pregnancy is an active stream of child nutrition research. In this study, the authors longitudinally follow a cohort of children of mothers involved in such a study and find that stunting rates decreased in the long-term.
- Original researchWHO essential medicines for children 2011–2019: age-appropriateness of enteral formulations
This study of enteral medicines in the World Health Organization Essential Medicines List for Children from 2011 and 2019 found many were not age-appropriate for children less than 6-years. Medicines which are not age-appropriate must be manipulated before administration, leading to potential issues of safety and efficacy. the majority of medicines in the 2019 list for some diseases, including HIV and tuberculosis were age-appropriate.
- Images in paediatrics6-month old with new-onset weakness: consider infant botulism
September 02, 2021
- Original researchSchool academic performance of children hospitalised with a chronic condition
This population-based cohort study using health administrative data examined academic performance in children with chronic conditions who were hospitalised. Compared to children who were not hospitalised, children hospitalized with a chronic condition underperformed in literacy and numeracy domains in grades 3, 5, and 7. A greater number of bed days or hospitalisations was associated with poorer academic performance.
August 30, 2021
- Global child healthEpidemiology of paediatric injuries in Nepal: evidence from emergency department injury surveillance
In this study a paediatric injury surveillance system was established in two hospitals in the Makwanpur district of Nepal, describing the types of injuries in over 2600 presentations, the predominant injuries being from falls, animal bites and stings, and road traffic injuries.
August 26, 2021
- Original researchFood protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome in the British Isles
Using data obtained through the BPSU, Stiefel et al report the incidence of Food Protein-induced Enterocolitis Syndrome (FPIES) in 2019 in UK, and suggest there may be significant under-recognition of this type of food allergy.
August 25, 2021
- Original researchExamining the interseasonal resurgence of respiratory syncytial virus in Western Australia
Lockdowns associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have led to an unusual epidemiology for common childhood respiratory pathogens. In this paper, the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of summertime RSV infection in Western Australia are described.
- ViewpointThree generations of paediatric training
August 24, 2021
- Original researchLead screening in children presenting to three hospitals in Lebanon
This study in three hospitals in Lebanon studied blood lead levels in 90 children the mean blood lead level was 1.05 μg/dL. All values were below 5.0 μg/dL, a marked decrease compared to before a national ban on leaded gasoline in 2002. The study identified risk factors for higher blood lead levels, including living in a house aged 40 years or more, receiving traditional remedies, and a lower household income.
August 23, 2021
- Clinical law for clinical practiceChildren’s confidentiality