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The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been linked to upper airway manifestations, including laryngotracheobronchitis, or croup.1–3 Croup from any cause is a common reason for hospital presentation in children and can cause serious morbidity.3
The current literature examining COVID-19-associated croup mostly describes the differences in clinical course and outcomes between SARS-CoV-2 variants; there is little data comparing SARS-CoV-2 croup to other respiratory viruses.1–5 Thus, we conducted an Australian single-institution observational study comparing the clinical features and outcomes between COVID-19-associated and non-COVID-19-associated croup.
All cases of croup (ICD10 J05.0) in children aged 0–9 years presenting to The Royal Children’s Hospital Melbourne, a quaternary paediatric hospital in Victoria, Australia, between the first case of COVID-19 in Australia (25 January 2020) and 30 June 2022 were included. Clinical, demographic and laboratory data were retrospectively extracted from the organisation electronic medical record (Epic Systems, Verona, Wisconsin, USA). Medical charts of all SARS-CoV-2-positive patients and all patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) were also manually reviewed to ensure accuracy and …
Contributors TCL collected data, carried out initial analyses and interpretation, drafted the initial manuscript, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. PJBW and SS carried out data analyses and interpretation, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. AM collected data and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. ST and NC critically reviewed and revised the manuscript. DRC conceptualised and designed the study and data collection instruments, carried out data analyses and interpretation, and critically reviewed and revised the manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.