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Kawasaki disease: a prospective population survey in the UK and Ireland from 2013 to 2015
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  • Published on:
    Response to comments of Professor Marchetti
    • Robert Tulloh, Professor Paediatric Cardiology, Bristol Royal Hospital For Children, Bristol BS2 8BJ, UK
    • Other Contributors:
      • Paul Brogan, Dr

    Dear Sir

    We thank Professor Marchetti for his comments on our article in ADC (1). He raises two important questions we wish to comment on.

    Regarding which dose of aspirin to use, we are also interested in the suggestion that anti-aggregant doses of aspirin might be a preferred option for the acute inflammatory phase of Kawasaki disease (KD). It is indeed possible that future guidance may recommend low dose aspirin (3-5 mg/kg/day) at all stages of KD, as suggested by the retrospective data referred to by Professor Marchetti (2). Whilst we acknowledge the potential merits of such an approach, particularly in relation to avoidance of toxicity, there has never been a prospective controlled clinical trial to support this and therefore no high-level evidence on which to base firm guidance. Two other practical considerations are worthy of highlighting in relation to aspirin. Firstly, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, which antagonize platelet inhibition induced by aspirin (3), should be avoided in patients with KD receiving anti-aggregant doses of aspirin. Secondly, although the risk of low dose aspirin (3-5 mg/kg) in being associated with Reye syndrome is unknown, usual advice is to discontinue in the event of inter-current infection.

    Regarding the use of corticosteroids for primary treatment of KD, we have been strong advocates of this for several years, as reflected in previously published guidance (4, 5). This is now brought into...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.
  • Published on:
    Kawasaki disease: is it time to consider the antiplatelet dose of aspirin even in the acute phase of the disease?
    • Federico Marchetti, Director, Pediatrician Department of Paediatrics, Santa Maria delle Croci Hospital, 48121 Ravenna, Italy
    • Other Contributors:
      • Lorenzo Mambelli, Pediatrician

    The results of the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit survey show that aspirin in Kawasaki disease (KD) is used in the UK and Ireland at a medium dose of 30-50 mg/kg/day in the acute phase of the disease (1). The guidelines of the American Heart Association (AHA) of 2017 do not give a clear indication on what dose of aspirin should be used in the acute phase of KD, stating that "there are no data to suggest that one dose of aspirin is superior to the other" (3).
    However, a recent review of the evidence of literature on the use of aspirin in KD (3), clearly shows that, in conjunction with intravenous immunoglobulin, low-dose ASA (3-5 mg/kg/day) in acute KD is not inferior to high-dose ASA (80-100 mg/kg/day) for reducing the risk of coronary artery (CA) abnormalities, duration of fever, responsiveness to IVIG and time of hospitalization (3). These results supports using low-dose (3-5 mg/kg/day) aspirin in the acute phase of KD (3,4). These studies did not consider the concomitant use of steroid therapy, of which the guidelines of AHA do not define a standardized use (2).
    The question of which dose of ASA is used in the acute phase is relevant considering that aspirin treatment exposes a risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, hepatotoxicity and neurosensory hearing impairment and Reye syndrome, and that this effect is strictly dose dependent and related to duration of therapy (3).
    We believe that the time has come to reconsider and update the guideli...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.