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Early excessive growth with distinct seasonality in preschool obesity
  1. Tsuyoshi Isojima1,
  2. Noriko Kato2,
  3. Susumu Yokoya3,
  4. Atsushi Ono4,
  5. Toshiaki Tanaka5,
  6. Hiroshi Yokomichi6,
  7. Zentaro Yamagata6,
  8. Soichiro Tanaka7,
  9. Hiroko Matsubara8,
  10. Mami Ishikuro9,10,
  11. Masahiro Kikuya9,10,
  12. Shoichi Chida11,
  13. Mitsuaki Hosoya4,
  14. Shinichi Kuriyama8,9,10,
  15. Shigeo Kure7,9
  1. 1 Department of Pediatrics, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2 Department of Early Childhood and Elementary Education, Jumonji University, Niiza, Japan
  3. 3 Fukushima Global Medical Science Center, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan
  4. 4 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima, Japan
  5. 5 Tanaka Growth Clinic, Tokyo, Japan
  6. 6 Department of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan
  7. 7 Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
  8. 8 Department of Disaster Public Health, International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
  9. 9 Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization (ToMMo), Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
  10. 10 Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
  11. 11 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University, Morioka, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Tsuyoshi Isojima, Department of Pediatrics, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo 173-8606, Japan; isojimat-tky{at}umin.ac.jp

Abstract

Objectives Healthy-weight children tend to gain weight during winter but lose weight during summer. However, overweight elementary school children have shown accelerated summertime weight gain. Whether this seasonal growth variation occurs during preschool period is of substantial interest.

Methods Data were derived from a nationwide retrospective cohort of nursery school children. Eight consecutive sets of longitudinal measurements on height and weight were obtained from 15 259 preschool children. Thereafter, growth in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) over a period of 6 months was calculated. Summertime growth was defined as that from April to October, whereas wintertime growth was defined as that from October to April of the following year. Longitudinal growth seasonality was analysed by classifying children according to their BMI status at the age of elementary school entry.

Results Accelerated summertime weight and BMI gain were observed among children with obesity. This distinctive growth seasonality was detected from around age 2. Children having this growth seasonality at approximately 2 years of age tended to be obese at the age of elementary school entry (OR: 3.7; 95% CI: 2.9 to 4.6; p<0.0001). In height gain, obese children were growing apparently faster than those in the other groups at all ages.

Conclusion Early excessive growth with distinct seasonality was observed in preschool obese children. These findings suggest that individuals involved in child healthcare should pay closer attention to early excessive growth with distinct seasonality in preschool obesity.

  • growth
  • seasonality
  • body mass index
  • obesity
  • preschool

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Footnotes

  • Contributors Study conceptualisation: TI, NK and SY. Study design: TI, NK and SY. Clinical data collection: TI, NK, SY, AO, TT, HY, ZY, ST, HM, MI, MK, SC, MH, SKuri and SKure. Study conduct and data collection: TI, NK and SY. Data analysis: TI and NK. Study support and intellectual input: SY, SKuri and SKure. Drafting manuscript: TI. Revising manuscript: NK and SY. Approving final version of manuscript: all authors.

  • Funding This study was fully supported by the Health and Labour Sciences Research Grant (H24-jisedai-shitei-007, fukkou).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Ethics approval The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board of Tohoku University (approval no: 2012-1-125).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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