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Acquired heart disease in low-income and middle-income countries
  1. Chris Curry1,
  2. Liesl Zuhlke2,
  3. Ana Mocumbi3,
  4. Neil Kennedy1
  1. 1Centre for Medical Education, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Sciences, Queen's University, Belfast, UK
  2. 2Cardiology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  3. 3Cardiology, University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
  1. Correspondence to Dr Neil Kennedy, Room 02.033, Mulhouse Building, Queen’s University, Grosvernor Road, Belfast, BT12 6BA, UK; N.Kennedy{at}


The burden of illness associated with acquired cardiac disease in children in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC) is significant and may be equivalent to that of congenital heart disease. Rheumatic heart disease, endomyocardial fibrosis, cardiomyopathy (including HIV cardiomyopathy) and tuberculosis are the most important causes. All are associated with poverty with the neediest children having the least access to care. The associated mortality and morbidity is high. There is an urgent need to improve cardiac care in LMIC, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Southeast Asia where the burden is highest.

  • cardiology
  • tropical paediatrics

Statistics from


  • Contributors CC and NK wrote the manuscript. LZ and AM reviewed and edited it. All the authors reviewed the final manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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