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What can be done to lessen morbidity associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders?
  1. Raja Mukherjee1,2,
  2. Penny A Cook2,
  3. Kate M Fleming3,
  4. Sarah H Norgate2
  1. 1FASD Specialist Behaviour Clinic, Surrey and Borders Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Redhill, Surrey, UK
  2. 2School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, UK
  3. 3Public Health Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Raja Mukherjee, FASD Specialist Behaviour Clinic, Surrey and Borders Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Gatton Place, St Matthew's Road, Redhill, Surrey, RH1 1TA UK; Raja.mukherjee{at}


Fetal alcohol syndrome and its wider spectrum of presentation fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a range of disorders that are sometimes difficult to recognise as they may present in a way that overlaps with other conditions. This makes identification and recognition challenging, which increases the burden associated with the disorder. When considering the reduction in morbidity, both prevention of exposure to alcohol by the fetus and early identification of cases are required. This selective review seeks to highlight some of the complexities involved as well as highlighting the challenges. By considering populations particularly at risk to exploring the reality of alcohol risk it will seek to offer some solutions to begin the process of change.

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
  • Morbidity
  • Prevalence

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  • Twitter Follow Raja Mukherjee @rajamukherjee10 and Sarah Norgate @sarahnorgate

  • Contributors The different aspects of the paper were drafted based on expertise by RM, PAC, KMF and SHN. Each author then reviewed and modified the paper prior to final submission.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.