Restoring circulation by expanding extracellular fluid has been the priority of fluid therapy from its beginning. The first example was treating children with diarrheal dehydration. Blackfan and Maxcy in 1918 gave 0.8% saline by intraperitoneal injection to nine infants with dehydration; all recovered. Later Karelitz and Schick using continuous intravenous infusions of isotonic saline to restore extracellular fluid, reported a hospital mortality ~20%. Marriott in 1920 described specifically how extracellular fluid restoration improved circulation and perfusion.
- IV fluids
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