Background and aim Among other risk factors the intrauterine smoke exposure has been suggested to influence BPD development. The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence of BPD as well as other related variables in a group of preterm infants born by smoking and non-smoking women.
Methods A retrospective analysis based on medical records was performed. Data of VLBW preterm newborns <32 weeks gestational age, born during one year and hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary perinatal centre were collected and statistically analysed using Mann-Whitney and Pearson’s Chi-square tests.
Results Analysis included 185 newborns. Mothers admitted smoking in 22 cases (12%). Gestational age and birth weight were similar in both groups (28 vs 27.5 weeks and 1203 g vs 1108 g, p > 0.05). BPD prevalence did not differ significantly between both groups (36% vs 39%, p > 0.05). Among newborns in the smoking group there was a higher mortality (27% vs 18%, p > 0.05) but this was not statistically significant. There were no significant differences between groups in the need for surfactant therapy (36% vs 43%, p > 0.05) or the length of mechanical ventilation (mean 15.6 vs 12.9 days, p > 0.05).
Conclusion Smoking was not confirmed as a definite risk factor of BPD in this study. This may be due to the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease but possibly also associated with the methodology that was based on mothers’ declaration regarding smoking without a laboratory screening.
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