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Withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care unit: guidance for practice
  1. Joanna Laddie1,
  2. Finella Craig2,
  3. Joe Brierley3,
  4. Paula Kelly4,
  5. Myra Bluebond-Langner5,6
  1. 1Evelina London Children's Hospital, Guys and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  2. 2The Louis Dundas Centre for Children's Palliative Care, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  3. 3Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK
  4. 4The Louis Dundas Centre for Children's Palliative Care, University College London, Institute of Child Health and Lecturer in Child and Adolescent Nursing, Kings College London, London, UK.
  5. 5The Louis Dundas Centre for Children's Palliative Care, University College London, Institute of Child Health, London, UK
  6. 6Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Joanna Laddie, Evelina London Children's Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London SE1 7EH, UK; Joanna.Laddie{at}gstt.nhs.uk

Abstract

Objective To review the work of one tertiary paediatric palliative care service in facilitating planned withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care setting, with the purpose of developing local guidance for practice.

Methods Retrospective 10-year (2003–2012) case note review of intensive care patients whose parents elected to withdraw ventilation in another setting. Demographic and clinical data revealed common themes and specific incidents relevant to local guideline development.

Results 18 children (aged 2 weeks to 16 years) were considered. Three died prior to transfer. Transfer locations included home (5), hospice (8) and other (2). Primary pathologies included malignant, neurological, renal and respiratory diseases. Collaborative working was evidenced in the review including multidisciplinary team meetings with the palliative care team prior to discharge. Planning included development of symptom management plans and emergency care plans in the event of longer than anticipated survival. Transfer of children and management of extubations demonstrated the benefits of planning and recognition that unexpected events occur despite detailed planning. We identified the need for local written guidance supporting healthcare professionals planning and undertaking extubation outside the intensive care setting, addressing the following phases: (i) introduction of withdrawal, (ii) preparation pretransfer, (iii) extubation, (iv) care postextubation and (v) care postdeath.

Conclusions Planned withdrawal of ventilatory support outside the intensive care setting is challenging and resource intensive. The development of local collaborations and guidance can enable parents of children dependent on intensive care to consider a preferred place of death for their child, which may be outside the intensive care unit.

  • Palliative Care
  • Guildlines
  • Paediatric Intensive Care (PICU)
  • Place of Death

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