Urinary stone disease is not so rare in children. The aim of this study was to assess the demographic, clinical and biological characteristics, as well as outcome, of urinary stone disease among Croatian children. We reviewed medical records of 76 children from various parts of Croatia who were diagnosed with urinary stone disease from 2002–2011. The average age (mean) were 9 yr 7 mo (toddlers 7.89%) with approximately equal gender distribution (male 53.95% vs female 46.05%). Family affection was identified in 27 (35.53%) children with the predominance of female transmission. The most stones were made of Ca oxalate dihydrate and monohydrate (75%). Hypercalciuria were detected in 47.37%, mild hyperoxaluria in (13.16%), hypocitraturia in 1.31% and 38.16% remained of idiopathic origin. Urine saturation (EQUIL 2) were above the limits in 47 (61.84%) children, urine volume less than average in 12 (15.79%). For most of the children we recommended increased fluid intake and balanced food nutrition, citrate were administered in 20 (26.32%), thiazides in 10 (13.15%) and aldactone in 1 (1.31%). Spontaneous evacuation were noticed in 51.32%, surgical (operation and endoscopic removal) 11.84%, ESWL in 11 0.84%, spontaneous resolution (ceftriaxone) in 1 (1.31%) and in 13.16% the stone was not removed from urinary tract. The study gave insight in etiology of urinary stone disease in Croatian children. Main pathological factors were hypercalciuria, mild hyperoxaluria and increased urine saturation. Spontaneous evacuation of stones were notified for most of chldren.
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