Background and Aims Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is widely used for the treatment of transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). In this study we hypothesized that the use of nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV) may be well tolerated in TTN and we aimed to evaluate its efficacy in reducing the duration of respiratory distress compared with NCPAP in TTN.
Methods This prospective, unblinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 40 eligible infants with a gestational age ≥37 weeks, and birth weight ≥2000 g who were hospitalized for TTN. Infants were randomized to either nonsynchronized NIMV (n=20) or NCPAP (n=20). The primary end point was the reduction of the duration of respiratory distress. Secondary end points were the duration and level of oxygen supplementation, the incidence of complications such as pneumothorax, pneumonia and respiratory failure requiring entubation.
Results There was no significant difference in the demographic features of the groups. There were no significant difference in the duration of respiratory support (28.0±19.2 h vs 32.2±23.3 h, p=0.231), O2 therapy (31.2±15.6 h vs 29.0±19.3 h, p=0.187), duration of TTN (67.6±36.5 h vs 63.3±39.1 h, p=0.480) and hospitalization (6.2±2.6 d vs 5.4±2.0 d, p=0.330) between the groups. The rate of complications were not significantly different between the groups.
Conclusions Our study indicates that NIMV is well tolerated and as effective as NCPAP in the treatment of TTN.
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