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Question 2 What is the ideal dose of vitamin D supplementation for term neonates?
  1. Chike Onwuneme1,2,4,
  2. Aoife Carroll2,
  3. Roberta McCarthy1,
  4. Mark Kilbane3,
  5. Malachi McKenna3,
  6. Nuala Murphy2,
  7. Eleanor J Molloy1,4,5
  1. 1Department of Paediatrics, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2Department of Endocrinology, Children's University Hospital Temple Street, Dublin, Ireland
  3. 3Metabolism Laboratory, St Vincent's University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  4. 4UCD School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
  5. 5Department of Neonatology, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, Ireland
  1. Correspondence to Chike Onwuneme, Department of Paediatrics, National Maternity Hospital, Holles Street, Dublin 2, Ireland; chike.onwuneme{at}

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During a well-baby check, a mother asked for the consultant's recommendation on the ideal dose and type of vitamin D formulation for her infant. She intends to breastfeed her baby exclusively. Her baby was born at 39 weeks gestation by spontaneous vaginal delivery.

Structured clinical question

In a normal term neonate [patient], what is the optimal dose of vitamin D supplementation [intervention] to prevent vitamin D deficiency and rickets [outcome]?

Search strategy

Primary sources

MEDLINE was searched via PubMed from 1990 to July 2011. The advanced search mode was used with the terms ‘vitamin D’ and ‘neonates’ and ‘supplementation’.

Secondary sources

A search of the Cochrane Library was conducted using the search terms ‘vitamin D’ and ‘infants’.


Vitamin D is essential for good bone health and insufficient levels are linked to rickets in children.1 5 A resurgence of vitamin D insufficiency and nutritional rickets has been reported across many countries.1 Studies in infants and children are also exploring the association between vitamin D insufficiency and type 1 diabetes mellitus as well as inflammatory diseases.1 2 There …

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  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.