Article Text

  1. K L Lanctot2,
  2. I Mitchell3,
  3. B A Paes1,
  4. E K Reim2
  1. 1Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, McMaster Children’s Hospital, Hamilton, ON, Canada
  2. 2Medical Outcomes and Research in Economics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada
  3. 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Alberta Children’s Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada


Objective To determine current usage of palivizumab prophylaxis, compliance patterns, hospitalization rate (HR) and outcomes in children at high-risk of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection through a Canadian Registry Database (CARESS).

Methods A prospective, observational, study of Canadian infants who received palivizumab in the 2006/2007 RSV season. Neonatal and demographic data were collected upon enrolment. Parents/caregivers were contacted monthly for data on palivizumab utilization, compliance and outcomes related to any respiratory tract events.

Results 1224 infants, aged 2 days–34 months (mean = 5.17 months) who received at least one injection of palivizumab were recruited from 16 regional sites across Canada. Participants were typically male (57.4%) and Caucasian (72.2%). Gestational age was 31.5±4.3 weeks. 914 infants (74.7%) received palivizumab primarily for prematurity (⩽35 completed weeks gestational age). 119 (9.7%) had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and required supportive oxygen therapy.119 (9.7%) had congenital heart disease and 72 (5.9%) were prophylaxed for other risk factors. 76.9% of subjects received at least 4 injections of palivizumab. The majority of injections were administered within recommended monthly time intervals (73.5%). There was a 5.1% HR for respiratory tract events (e.g., bronchiolitis or pneumonia). The RSV positive HR was 1.4% (proven RSV). Hospitalization rates for respiratory tract events were highest in those with BPD (12.8%, p<0.001), and those of Hispanic (15.4%) or Aboriginal descent (13.6%)(p = 0.051).

Conclusions Compliance with the course of palivizumab was very good. The RSV hospitalization rate observed in the 2006/2007 CARESS season was lower than that previously documented in the scientific literature.

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