Objectives: Few literature reports the incidence of ocular abnormalities in chronic renal failure (CRF). The aim of this paper is to determine the incidence of ocular abnormalities in childhood CRF.
Methods: From January 1993 to December 2005, 80 patients with CRF (at the University Hospital in Al Kadhimiyia) were examined to determine the presence of ocular abnormalitites. Fifty patients were male (62.5%) and 30 (37%) were female. Their age at referral ranged from 2 months to 18 years (mean 9 years). They were followed for a period ranging from 5 days to f years.
Results: Corneal cystine crystals were the most common ocular abnormalities associated with childhood CRF observed in six patients with nephropathic cystinosis (7.5%). Congenital cataract and glaucoma were observed in three patients (3.75%) with oculo-cerebro-renal syndrome (OCRS). Congenital cataract and chorioretinal hypoplasia were present in one patient with OCRS. Hypertensive retinopathy occurred in two patients. Acquired cataracts occurred in one patient with Hinman syndrome in association with hypocalcaemia and non-compliance with calcium and one-alphacalciferol supplementation. Retinitis pigmentosa occurred in one patient with Laurence Moon Biedle syndrome. Bilateral optic atrophy occurred in one patient with familial nephropathy associated with club feet. Proptosis occurred in one patient with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
Conclusion: Ocular abnormalities are relatively common in childhood CRF, occurring in approximately 19%.
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