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Absence of urinary opioid peptides in children with autism
  1. H Cass1,
  2. P Gringras2,
  3. J March3,
  4. I McKendrick4,
  5. A E O’Hare5,
  6. L Owen6,
  7. C Pollin3
  1. 1
    Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London, UK
  2. 2
    Evelina Children’s Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London, UK
  3. 3
    Moredun Research Institute, Penicuik, Midlothian, Scotland, UK
  4. 4
    Biomathematics and Statistics Scotland, JCMB, The King’s Buildings, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
  5. 5
    Child Life and Health, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
  6. 6
    Family and Child Psychology Research Centre, Psychology Department, City University, London, UK
  1. Dr Hilary Cass, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, Great Ormond Street, London, UK; cassh{at}gosh.nhs.uk

Footnotes

  • Funding: JM has previously acted as an expert witness for the litigants in the MMR litigation case conducted by Alexander Harris against three MMR vaccine manufacturers, which involved urinary analysis of both litigants and non-litigant controls using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. He has an autistic child who was not part of this legal case.

  • Competing interests: This research was funded by the R&D Fund, RHSC, Edinburgh and the Chief Scientist Office, Edinburgh. Dr Lucy Owen’s post was funded by Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, a UK based diagnostics arm of Johnson and Johnson.

  • Ethics approval: Obtained from the local ethics committee and the National Autistic Society research ethics committee.

  • Patient consent: Obtained.

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Footnotes

  • Funding: JM has previously acted as an expert witness for the litigants in the MMR litigation case conducted by Alexander Harris against three MMR vaccine manufacturers, which involved urinary analysis of both litigants and non-litigant controls using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. He has an autistic child who was not part of this legal case.

  • Competing interests: This research was funded by the R&D Fund, RHSC, Edinburgh and the Chief Scientist Office, Edinburgh. Dr Lucy Owen’s post was funded by Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, a UK based diagnostics arm of Johnson and Johnson.

  • Ethics approval: Obtained from the local ethics committee and the National Autistic Society research ethics committee.

  • Patient consent: Obtained.

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