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Parents’ reactions to nose bleeds and salt ingestion in infancy
  1. N McIntosh1,
  2. L Haines2,
  3. H Baumer3
  1. 1
    University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK
  2. 2
    Research Division, Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, London, UK
  3. 3
    Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK
  1. Dr Neil McIntosh, Child Life and Health Department, University of Edinburgh, 20 Sylvan Place, Edinburgh, EH9 1UW UK; neil.mcintosh{at}

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Paediatricians working in child protection are regularly faced with diagnostic difficulties when children present with signs and symptoms that could have an accidental, non-accidental or medical cause. As part of a review of the evidence behind two such signs, oronasal haemorrhage and hypernatraemia, a market-research survey was commissioned to explore parents’ awareness of the potential seriousness of blood loss from the mouth or nose and of a salt overdose.

Oronasal haemorrhage is rare in children under 2 years who present to accident and emergency units,1 …

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  • Competing interests: None.