Article Text

This article has a correction. Please see:

Download PDFPDF
Diagnosing abuse: a systematic review of torn frenum and other intra-oral injuries


Introduction: A torn labial frenum is widely regarded as pathognomonic of abuse.

Methods: We systematically reviewed the evidence for this, and to define other intra-oral injuries found in physical abuse. Nine studies documented abusive torn labial frena in 30 children and 27 were fatally abused: 22 were less than 5 years old. Only a direct blow to the face was substantiated as a mechanism of injury.

Results: Two studies noted accidentally torn labial frena, both from intubation. Abusive intra-oral injuries were widely distributed to the lips, gums, tongue and palate and included fractures, intrusion and extraction of the dentition, bites and contusions.

Conclusions: Current literature does not support the diagnosis of abuse based on a torn labial frenum in isolation. The intra-oral hard and soft tissue should be examined in all suspected abuse cases, and a dental opinion sought where abnormalities are found.

  • abuse
  • frenum
  • intra-oral injury
  • torn labial frenum
  • systematic review

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Linked Articles

  • Précis
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health
  • Correction
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health