Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Risk factors for recurrence of maltreatment: a systematic review
  1. N Hindley1,
  2. P G Ramchandani2,
  3. D P H Jones3
  1. 1Child and Adolescent Forensic Mental Health Service, Oxford, UK
  2. 2Section of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK
  3. 3Park Hospital for Children, Headington, Oxford, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr N Hindley
    Consultant Child and Adolescent Forensic Psychiatrist, Warneford Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 7JX, UK; nick.hindley{at}


Background: Children who have been maltreated are at increased risk of further maltreatment. Competent identification of those at highest risk of further maltreatment is an important part of safe and effective practice, but is a complex and demanding task.

Aim: To systematically review the research base predicting those children at highest risk of recurrent maltreatment.

Methods: Systematic review of cohort studies investigating factors associated with substantiated maltreatment recurrence in children.

Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies were heterogeneous. A variety of forms of maltreatment were considered. Four factors were most consistently identified as predicting future maltreatment: number of previous episodes of maltreatment; neglect (as opposed to other forms of maltreatment); parental conflict; and parental mental health problems. Children maltreated previously were approximately six times more likely to experience recurrent maltreatment than children who had not previously been maltreated. The risk of recurrence was highest in the period soon after the index episode of maltreatment (within 30 days), and diminished thereafter.

Conclusions: There are factors clearly associated with an increased risk of recurrent maltreatment, and these should be considered in professional assessments of children who have been maltreated. A comprehensive approach to risk assessment, including but not solely based on these factors, is likely to lead to interventions which offer greater protection to children.

  • child abuse
  • maltreatment
  • recurrence

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Published Online First 13 July 2006

  • Funding: PR held a special training fellowship in Health Services and Health of the Public Research funded by the Medical Research Council (UK) during the undertaking of this research.

  • Competing interests: none

Linked Articles

  • Précis
    BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health