Aim: To determine the association between allergic rhinitis, bottle feeding, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusion in the primary dentition.
Methods: Data were collected on 1160 children aged 4–5 years, who had been longitudinally followed since the age of 4 months, when they were admitted to nurseries in a suburban area of Tampico–Madero, Mexico. Periodically, physical examinations were conducted and a questionnaire was given to their parents or tutors.
Results: Malocclusion was detected in 640 of the children (51.03% had anterior open bite and 7.5% had posterior cross-bite). Allergic rhinitis alone (adjusted odds ratio = 2.87; 95% CI 1.57 to 5.25) or together with non-nutritive sucking habits (adjusted odds ratio = 3.31; 95% CI 1.55 to 7.09) had an effect on anterior open bite. Bottle feeding alone (adjusted odds ratio = 1.95; 95% CI 1.07 to 3.54) or together with allergic rhinitis (adjusted odds ratio = 3.96; 95% CI 1.80 to 8.74) had an effect on posterior cross-bite. Posterior cross-bite was more frequent in children with allergic rhinitis and non-nutritive sucking habits (10.4%).
Conclusions: Allergic rhinitis alone or together with non-nutritive sucking habits is related to anterior open bite. Non-nutritive sucking habits together with allergic rhinitis seem to be the most important factor for development of posterior open bite in children under the age of 5 years.
- AR, allergic rhinitis
- BF, bottle feeding
- NNSH, non-nutritive sucking habits
- non-nutritive sucking habits
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