Statistics from Altmetric.com
- ART, antiretroviral therapy
- DoH, Department of Health
- HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy
- ICH, Institute of Child Health
- MTCT, mother to child transmission
- PCP, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
A summary of recent developments
In the five years since our last review there have been considerable advances, both in the prevention of mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV, and in the treatment of HIV infected children with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).1 There are now over 600 children living with HIV in the UK, the majority of whom were born to mothers who acquired HIV in Africa.2 Currently, about two thirds live in London, but this may change if refugees continue to be dispersed to other parts of the country. Antenatal testing for HIV has been shown to be cost effective throughout the UK.3 However, although uptake of testing has increased in London, rates of detection of previously undiagnosed women during pregnancy are about 60% outside London.2 HIV infected babies are still presenting seriously ill and dying with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in the first months of life.4 In 1999 the Department of Health (DoH) set targets that by the end of 2002, all UK health authorities should increase uptake of antenatal HIV testing to 90%, with the aim that 80% of HIV infected pregnant women nationally would be identified and offered treatment.5 These targets will only be met if testing rates are increased outside London.6 Paediatricians throughout the UK need to be familiar with how MTCT of HIV is prevented, and how to manage children born to HIV infected mothers. This paper summarises the recent developments in prevention and management of HIV infected children.
MOTHER TO CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV INFECTION
The rate of MTCT prior to the advent of interventions in Europe and USA was around 15–20%, compared with about 30% in Africa. Most of this difference is a result of breast feeding, which approximately doubles the transmission rate. In non-breast feeding populations, around two thirds …
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.