Background: The degree of inflammatory reaction and leucocyte trafficking during acute pyelonephritis has been related to the risk of developing renal parenchymal scarring. Adhesion molecules play a central role in leucocyte recruitment during inflammation.
Aims: (1) To determine whether circulating and urinary concentrations of E-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) were abnormal during first documented acute pyelonephritis; (2) to investigate whether circulating or urinary concentrations were predictive for the development of abnormalities on DMSA imaging.
Methods: Plasma and urine samples were collected from 40 children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis within one week of infection (acute sample) and at six weeks (late sample). Control samples were collected from 21 healthy age matched controls and 18 age matched controls with febrile illness not secondary to urinary tract infection.
Results: Plasma and urinary sE-selectin were higher in acute samples (median 176.3 ng/ml and 0.12 ng/mmol respectively) compared with late (97.8 ng/ml and 0.029 ng/mmol) and both control (65.6 ng/ml and 0 ng/mmol) and febrile control (urine 0 ng/mmol) samples. Plasma sICAM-1 was higher in acute samples (428 ng/ml) than controls (365.2 ng/ml), and acute sICAM-1 urine concentrations were higher than febrile control concentrations (3.2 v 0.7 ng/mmol). No correlations were detected between sE-selectin or sICAM-1 and acute or late DMSA scan changes.
Conclusion: Plasma and urinary sE-selectin and sICAM-1 are significantly increased during acute pyelonephritis, though no correlation exists between the presence of high plasma or urine concentrations and DMSA scan changes, both during acute infection and six weeks post-infection.
- soluble adhesion molecule
- CRP, C reactive protein
- ICAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1
- MCUG, micturating cystourethrogram
- PECAM-1, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1
- sICAM-1, soluble ICAM-1
- VUR, vesicoureteric reflux
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