Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Statistics from

Lucina finds data about birth defects of limited value unless each specific defect is considered separately. In Norway (Journal of the American Medical Association 2001;285:761–8), 2.5% of the 486 207 boys born between 1967 and 1982 had a birth defect. As might be expected, they were less likely to survive and less likely to have children than boys without a birth defect. Their children had a 6.5-fold increase in risk of the same defect and an 80% increase in risk of a different defect. Nevertheless, affected fathers accounted for only 1.6% of the risk of birth defects in the next generation and affected mothers for only 0.5%.

During the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta measures were taken to reduce traffic congestion in the city. These included 24 hour public transport, much expanded park-and-ride services, the banning of private cars from the city centre, and altered work schedules for local businesses. As a result (Journal of the American Medical Association 2001; 285:897–905) peak morning traffic was reduced by 23% and peak daily atmospheric ozone concentrations fell by 28%. At the same time the number of “acute care events” for asthma in children dropped by 11% in two local hospitals and by over 40% as measured by Medicaid claims and on the database of a health maintenance organisation. The reduction in morbidity seemed to be specific …

View Full Text

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.