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Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in children
  1. H C Maltezou,
  2. P Spyridis,
  3. D A Kafetzis
  1. University of Athens Second Department of Pediatrics, P & A Kyriakou Children's Hospital, Athens, 11527, Greece
  1. Dr Kafetzis email: kafetzis{at}


METHODS The clinical and epidemiological features of 102 children with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, diagnosed between 1982 and 1998 at P & A Kyriakou Children's Hospital were reviewed.

RESULTS During the past decade, a 50% increase of admissions for extra-pulmonary tuberculosis was observed. The source of infection was disclosed in 48 patients. Diagnoses included superficial lymphadenitis (n = 48), pleural effusion (n = 27), meningitis (n = 16), skeletal tuberculosis (n = 5), miliary tuberculosis (n = 3), abdominal tuberculosis (n = 2), and pericarditis (n = 1). Miliary tuberculosis developed in infants, lymphadenitis and meningitis in preschool children, and pleural effusion and skeletal tuberculosis in older children. None of the patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis died; however, six patients with meningitis developed permanent neurological deficits. In these patients, antituberculous treatment was introduced at a median of six days following admission as compared with one day in patients with no complications. Poverty, immigration, and limited access to medical services were common among patients with meningitis.

  • M tuberculosis
  • extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

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