There have been significant improvements in the outlook for children with acute leukaemia but these advances are only available to a minority of the world's children. There is still room for improvements in conventional chemotherapy and these need evaluation in randomised trials. The role of bone marrow transplants in first remission is evolving as chemotherapy becomes more effective. New treatments are needed for relapsed patients. Molecular diagnosis has refined the assessment of prognosis but the extra value afforded by measurement of minimal residual disease is not clear. International collaboration is needed to evaluate treatment for rare subtypes of leukaemia.
- acute leukemia
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