Two children developed papillary thyroid carcinoma after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) probably due to radiotherapy during remission and pretransplantation conditioning. Establishing a relationship between the cellular thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) effect and development of carcinoma in cases with high serum TSH concentrations is difficult. After BMT, patients should be regularly followed up with thyroid ultrasound and, when nodularity is found, fine needle aspiration and/or open biopsy are recommended.
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