Acquired stenosis of the trachea or bronchus in newborn infants is a possible complication of perinatal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although the exact pathophysiology is unknown, stenosis formation seems to be initiated by pressure necrosis. Prematurity is thought to be an important risk factor for acquired airway stenosis. Management of stenotic lesions may be conservative, surgical, or endoscopic. Four patients were treated with endoscopic balloon dilatation with satisfactory results. Endoscopic balloon dilatation is the method of choice in most newborn infants with acquired bronchial or tracheal stenosis.
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